how are avalanches measured

While avalanches are sudden, there are typically a number of warning signs you can look for or feel before one occurs. That is the equivalent of 20 football fields filled 3 meters (10 feet) deep with snow.
Furthermore, the depth of snow before, after and during the avalanche can also be determined. An avalanche is a rapid flow of snow down a hill or mountainside.

You can measure how unstable they are with reasonable accuracy by digging snow pits and evaluating the different layers of the snow, seeing whether there are any particular weaknesses. However, such large avalanches are often naturally released, when the snowpack becomes unstable and layers of snow begin to fail. Along the tubular pylon (between 1–6 m above ground) optoelectronic sensors recorded the avalanche flow velocity. In a slab avalanche, the mass of descending snow may reach a speed of 130 km (80 miles) per hour and is capable of destroying forests and small villages in its path. Although avalanches can occur on any steep slope given the right conditions, certain times of the year and types of locations are naturally more dangerous. Avalanches are masses of snow, ice, and rocks that fall rapidly down a mountainside. Avalanches kill about 150 people a year in North America and Europe.

A large avalanche in North America might release 230,000 cubic meters (300,000 cubic yards) of snow.
Most of those killed are backcountry skiers, climbers, snowshoers, and snowmobilers who accidentally trigger an avalanche and become buried in the snow. Flow depths were measured by mechanical sensors. By installing pairs of radar within the avalanche track itself that point upwards into the flow it is possible to use the correlation in the signal between the radar to measure avalanche velocities at the bed.

They can be deadly. On a small concrete wall, a 1 m 2 pressure plate mounted with 4 load-gauge bolts measured normal and tangential forces.

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